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Chip manufacturing process

Complete chip production process, including chip design, chip production, packaging production, the cost of testing, and several other areas, wherein the wafer production process is particularly complex.
First, the chip design, according to the design requirements, the resulting "pattern"
1, raw wafer chip
Wafer component is silicon, the silicon is made of quartz sand scouring out, the wafer is a silicon element to be purified (99.999%), followed by those of pure crystal rod made of silicon, quartz semiconductor manufacturing integrated circuits become the material, which is sliced chips produced specifically desired wafer. Wafers thinner, the lower the cost of production, but the process requires higher.
2, wafer coating
Wafer coating is resistant to oxidation and temperature resistance, which material is a photoresist.
3, wafer lithography developing, etching
The procedure uses a UV-sensitive chemicals, namely the case of UV light is soft. By controlling the position of the blind can be obtained chip shape. Silicon wafer coated with a photoresist, such that it will dissolve in case ultraviolet. Then you can use the first one shade, making direct ultraviolet portion is dissolved, which can then be used to dissolve part of the solvent to be washed away. The rest of this is the same shade and shape, and this effect is exactly what we want. So we need to get the silicon dioxide layer.
4, adding impurities
The wafer ion implantation, to form the corresponding P, N-based semiconductor.
Specific process is a region exposed from the silicon wafer starts, into a mixture of chemical ionization. This process will change the conductivity type of doped region, so that each transistor may be turned on and off, or to carry data. Simple chip can only use one, but complex chips usually have many layers, this time will keep repeating this process, the different layers can be connected together by opening the window. This is similar to the principle of making multi-layer PCB board. More complex chips may require multiple silicon dioxide layer, this time by repeating the photolithography, and the above process to achieve, the formation of a three-dimensional structure.
5, wafer test
After a few above process on a wafer to form a lattice-like grains. Way through the needle measuring electrical characteristics detected for each grain. Generally the number of grains per chip have is huge, and the organization of a needle test mode is a very complex process, which requires the production of as much as possible at the time is the same chip size models constructed high-volume production. The larger the number, the lower the relative cost will be, which is why the mainstream chip devices low cost as a factor.
6, the package
The wafers manufactured fixed pin bindings, in accordance with the needs to be made into a variety of different packages, this is the same kind of chip core can have different packages reasons. For example: DIP, QFP, PLCC, QFN, etc. Here is mainly applied by the user habits, application environment, the market in the form of other external factors to decide.
7, testing, packaging
After After the above process, the chip production has been completed, and this step is to test the chip, removing defective products, and packaging.
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